What are exosomes and what is the function of exosomes?
The definition of exosome and extracellular vesicles (EVs): Exosomes are extracellular vesicles, which are tiny fluid-filled sacs or nanoparticles that originate in many different types of cells in the body, including stem cells. While stem cell therapy is generally known to provide regenerative benefits, recent research suggests that EVs, including exosomes, play a vital role.
Exosomes have been shown to carry cell-specific cargos—or exosomal cargos—of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids like RNAs, which can be selectively transferred to recipient cells in the body (located both near and far). Through a form of cell-to-cell communication—or intercellular communication—known as paracrine signaling, exosomes deliver tiny messages (biochemical signals) from cell to cell, which alter the behavior of the recipient cells.
By manufacturing and deploying exosomes, the cells are able to orchestrate the regeneration of tissue, help control inflammation, repair injuries and support regenerative therapies to treat certain diseases.
Is exosome therapy a form of stem cell therapy?
Exosomes are derived from stem cells and essentially perform the same biological functions as stem cells do. However, evidence suggests that stems cells without extracellular vesicles like exosomes don’t provide any beneficial function. Exosomes may outperform stem cells due to:
· Their tiny size, which may allow for widespread distribution and absorption into spaces inaccessible by the cells themselves.
· Eliminating the downsides of direct stem cell transplantation, including low cell survival.
· Compensating for the low quality and quantity of available stem cells that is typical as we get older.
According to Guiot et al., exosomes have also been shown to have a long circulating half-life, the inherent ability to target tissues, biocompatibility (meaning they are not harmful to human tissue) and little or no inherent toxicity issues.
What is exosome therapy and how does it work?
Exosome therapy is similar to platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy, another type of regenerative therapy, in that it utilizes stem cells to restore healthy function to tissues compromised by aging, injury or disease. Both forms of therapy involve the injection of a product (exosomes or PRP) into damaged tissue, which helps enable cellular regeneration.
While PRP is derived from the patient’s own blood, the exosome product EVEXIAS uses contains exosomes isolated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)—or stromal cells—in human donor perinatal tissue. The exosome product includes growth factors, hyaluronic acid and micro RNA, as well as cytokines and chemokines (two proteins that support cell signaling), which all work together to help heal and regenerate tissue.
Can weekend warriors benefit from exosome therapy?
If you’ve experienced a mild to moderate musculoskeletal injury and pain after a “harmless” tag football game with friends or want to promote tissue repair after surgery, regenerative stem cell therapy with exosomes may be a good option for you.
Regenerative therapy injections have been shown to stimulate stem cells and growth factors in the body to create healthy, new tissue and repair old, damaged tissue. Exosomes also help regulate inflammation, which may help minimize pain associated with injury or surgery.
Can exosomes be used in anti-aging treatments like facial rejuvenation?
Yes! EVEXIAS offers minimally invasive exosome facial rejuvenation that utilizes microneedling along with the exosome product—exosomes, growth factors, hyaluronic acid and micro RNA—to help stimulate healing and regenerate new skin. Dermal fillers may also be used during exosome facials and facelifts to help lift and plump sagging skin.
Following the microneedling procedure, the aesthetician injects the exosome product into the area of concern. By rejuvenating the skin, exosome anti-aging treatments have been shown to:
· Restore facial contours and shape for a more youthful look.
· Enhance skin quality, texture and tone.
· Minimize hyperpigmentation and sunspots.
· Reduce fine lines and wrinkles.
· Improve skin tightness.
What role do exosomes play in the immune system and immune responses?
According to their recent article in the journal Annals of Translational Medicine, authors Beverlie Baquir and Robert E. W. Hancock state “mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have a profound effect on the regulation of the immune system.” Baquir and Hancock note that MSCs play a key role in modulating the immune system “in a paracrine manner (intercellular communication), involving the secretion of exosomes.” Exosomes also play a role in the function of cells of the immune system, such as dendritic cells (DCs) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells), which can absorb and secrete exosomes.
Numerous studies have also shown that exosomes are rich in proteins and RNA, including mRNA and microRNA. This further supports the immune boosting power of exosomes, as it is widely accepted that microRNA helps regulate immune responses. Baquir and Hancock also note that several studies show that microRNAs help regulate the function of recipient cells related to cancer, heart disease and sepsis.
What is the role of exosomes in fighting lung diseases?
Numerous studies support using exosomes derived from MSCs to treat lung diseases such as asthma and ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome). The ability of exosomes to promote tissue repair and wound healing, combined with their anti-inflammatory and immune boosting qualities, all point to the use of exosomes to treat lung disease.
A recent study by Sengupta et al. also revealed that exosomes could be beneficial to patients suffering from ARDS associated with COVID-19. That study concluded that exosomes were a promising therapeutic candidate for severe cases of COVID-19 due to the therapy’s safety profile and its ability to restore oxygenation and boost immunity.
Is stem cell therapy for hair loss effective?
While practitioners have only recently started offering exosome therapy for hair loss, other forms of cellular therapy to regrow natural hair have been available for many years. In a study from 2017, Gentile et al. were able to increase hair density after treating the scalps of men with stem cells isolated from human hair follicles.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy has also been used for many years as a form of stem cell therapy for hair loss. At EVEXIAS, we’re excited to offer exosome therapy for hair loss because the quantity and quality of stem cells available in the exosome product are typically higher than PRP.
Can exosome therapy help support sexual health?
Since exosome therapy helps heal damaged tissue and regenerate new tissue, we’re also delighted to offer this exciting new therapy to treat men and women who want to feel like their younger, sexier selves. The exosome product for intimate wellness includes many growth and healing factors, which provide regenerative abilities to help stimulate healing and rejuvenation.
For women, injecting exosomes into the pelvic floor and around the sexual organs may help enhance sensitivity, rejuvenate the female orgasm system and mitigate the symptoms of incontinence.
Exosome intimate wellness therapy for men helps increase the growth of new blood vessels and improve circulation in the penis, providing many benefits, including increased sexual stamina and satisfaction.
Have additional questions about exosomes and regenerative therapies?
If you’d like to learn more about exosomes, contact the EVEXIAS location nearest you. Your practitioner can explain the pros, cons and risks of exosomes and help you determine whether exosome therapy or another regenerative therapy or aesthetic treatment may be a good fit for you.